Paraptosis-like cell death induced by yessotoxin.

PMID:21945047
Korsnes MS , Espenes A , Hetland DL , Hermansen LC
Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA
This study shows that BC3H1 myoblast cell lines exposed to 100 nM yessotoxin (YTX) undergo a form of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis and with features resembling paraptosis. Morphologically, cells treated with YTX reveal extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling, uncondensed chromatin and cytoskeletal alterations. DNA electrophoresis evidences lack of DNA fragmentation and Western blotting analysis demonstrates activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase JNK/SAPK1. Further characterisation of this form of programmed cell death may have interest within medicine and cancer therapy.


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