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Root endosymbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms (Fungus, Frankia or Rhizobium) that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza. These interactions enable many species to survive in different marginal lands to overcome the nitrogen-and/or phosphorus deficient environment and can potentially reduce the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture which gives them an economic, social and environmental importance. The formation and the development of these structures require the mediation of specific gene products among which the transcription factors play a key role. Three of these transcription factors, viz., CYCLOPS, NSP1 and NSP2 are well conserved between actinorhizal, legume, non-legume and mycorrhizal symbioses. They interact with DELLA proteins to induce the expression of NIN in nitrogen fixing symbiosis or RAM1 in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Recently, the small non coding RNA including micro RNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulators of root endosymbioses. Among them, miRNA171 targets NSP2, a TF conserved in actinorhizal, legume, non-legume and mycorrhizal symbioses. This review will also focus on the recent advances carried out on the biological function of others transcription factors during the root pre-infection/pre-contact, infection or colonization. Their role in nodule formation and AM development will also be described.
PMID: 29450655 [PubMed - in process]