Full Text Sources
Glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) are carbohydrate-active enzymes that hydrolyze a specific β-glycosidic bond in glycoconjugate substrates; β-glucosidases degrade glucosylceramide, a ubiquitous glycosphingolipid. GHs are grouped into structurally similar families, which themselves can be grouped into clans. GH1, GH5, and GH30 glycosidases belong to clan A hydrolases with a catalytic (β/α)8 TIM barrel domain, whereas GH116 belongs to clan O with a catalytic (α/α)6 domain. In humans, GH abnormalities underlie metabolic diseases. The lysosomal enzyme GBA1 (family GH30) -deficient in Gaucher disease and implicated in Parkinson disease etiology- and the cytosol-facing membrane-bound GBA2 (family GH116) remove the terminal glucose from the ceramide lipid moiety. Here, we compare enzyme differences in fold, action, dynamics, and catalytic domain stabilization by binding site occupancy. We also explore other glycosidases with reported glycosylceramidase activity, including human cytosolic β-glucosidase GBA3, intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and lysosomal galactosylceramidase. Last, we describe the successful translation of research to practice: recombinant glycosidases and glucosylceramide metabolism modulators are approved drug products (enzyme replacement therapies). Activity-based probes now facilitate the diagnosis of enzyme deficiency and screening for compounds that interact with the catalytic pocket of glycosidases. Future research may deepen the understanding of the functional variety of these enzymes and their therapeutic potential.
PMID: 30279220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]