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海の大部分の体積を占めるのは,表層と海底の間に存在する暗黒の冷たい海水域で,そこで繁栄しているのがクラゲだ。クラゲはゼラチン質の脆弱な体。網で捕まえるよりも,カ...

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Resistance to Fluopyram, Fluxapyroxad, and Penthiopyrad in Botrytis cinerea from Strawberry.

著者 Amiri A , Heath SM , Peres NA
Plant Dis.2014 Apr ; 98(4):532-539.
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Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) constitute a mainstay in management of gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea in strawberry and several other crops. In this study, we investigated the risks of resistance development to three newer SDHIs (i.e., fluopyram, fluxapyroxad, and penthiopyrad) and their cross-resistance with the previously registered boscalid. We investigated the mutations in the SdhB subunit and evaluated their impact on microbial fitness in field populations of B. cinerea. Amino acid substitutions associated with resistance to SDHIs were detected at three codons of the SdhB subunit (B, B, and B) in the succinate dehydrogenase gene of field isolates from Florida. The B, B, B, B, and B mutations were detected at frequencies of 51.5, 28.0, 0.5, 2.5, and 4%, respectively. Strong cross-resistance patterns were evident between boscalid and fluxapyroxad and penthiopyrad but not with fluopyram, except in B, B, and B mutants. All five mutations conferred moderate to very high resistance to boscalid whereas the B conferred resistance to fluxapyroxad and penthiopyrad. The B, B, and B mutations conferred high resistance to all four SDHIs tested. Resistance monitoring following the first use of penthiopyrad in strawberry fields in Florida in 2013 suggests potential for quick selection for highly resistant populations and warrants careful use of the newer SDHIs. No evidence of major fitness costs due to the mutations in the SdhB subunit was found, which indicates the potential ability of the mutants to survive and compete with wild-type isolates. Our study suggests high risks for rapid widespread occurrence of B. cinerea populations resistant to the novel SDHIs unless appropriate rotation strategies are implemented immediately upon registration.
PMID: 30708725 [PubMed]
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