Dysregulated Lipid Metabolism and Its Role in α-Synucleinopathy in Parkinson's Disease.Alecu I , Bennett SAL
Front Neurosci.2019 ; 13():328.PubMedで表示
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, the main pathological hallmark of which is the accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) and the formation of filamentous aggregates called Lewy bodies in the brainstem, limbic system, and cortical areas. Lipidomics is a newly emerging field which can provide fresh insights and new answers that will enhance our capacity for early diagnosis, tracking disease progression, predicting critical endpoints, and identifying risk in pre-symptomatic persons. In recent years, lipids have been implicated in many aspects of PD pathology. Biophysical and lipidomic studies have demonstrated that α-syn binds preferentially not only to specific lipid families but also to specific molecular species and that these lipid-protein complexes enhance its interaction with synaptic membranes, influence its oligomerization and aggregation, and interfere with the catalytic activity of cytoplasmic lipid enzymes and lysosomal lipases, thereby affecting lipid metabolism. The genetic link between aberrant lipid metabolism and PD is even more direct, with mutations in and enhancing PD risk in humans and loss of function increasing α-syn aggregation and accumulation in experimental murine models. Moreover, a number of lipidomic studies have reported PD-specific lipid alterations in both patient brains and plasma, including alterations in the lipid composition of lipid rafts in the frontal cortex. A further aspect of lipid dysregulation promoting PD pathogenesis is oxidative stress and inflammation, with proinflammatory lipid mediators such as platelet activating factors (PAFs) playing key roles in arbitrating the progressive neurodegeneration seen in PD linked to α-syn intracellular trafficking. Lastly, there are a number of genetic risk factors of PD which are involved in normal lipid metabolism and function. Genes such as and , which are involved in glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism either directly or indirectly are associated with risk of PD. This review seeks to describe these facets of metabolic lipid dysregulation as they relate to PD pathology and potential pathomechanisms involved in disease progression, while highlighting incongruous findings and gaps in knowledge that necessitate further research.
PMID: 31031582 [PubMed]
PMID: 31031582 [PubMed]