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From Broca and Wernicke to the Neuromodulation Era: Insights of Brain Language Networks for Neurorehabilitation.

著者 Nasios G , Dardiotis E , Messinis L
Behav Neurol.2019 ; 2019():9894571.
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Communication in humans activates almost every part of the brain. Of course, the use of language predominates, but other cognitive functions such as attention, memory, emotion, and executive processes are also involved. However, in order to explain how our brain "understands," "speaks," and "writes," and in order to rehabilitate aphasic disorders, neuroscience has faced the challenge for years to reveal the responsible neural networks. Broca and Wernicke (and Lichtheim and many others), during the 19th century, when brain research was mainly observational and autopsy driven, offered fundamental knowledge about the brain and language, so the Wernicke-Geschwind model appeared and aphasiology during the 20th century was based on it. This model is still useful for a first approach into the classical categorization of aphasic syndromes, but it is outdated, because it does not adequately describe the neural networks relevant for language, and it offers a modular perspective, focusing mainly on cortical structures. During the last three decades, neuroscience conquered new imaging, recording, and manipulation techniques for brain research, and a new model of the functional neuroanatomy of language was developed, the dual stream model, consisting of two interacting networks ("streams"), one ventral, bilaterally organized, for language comprehension, and one dorsal, left hemisphere dominant, for production. This new model also has its limitations but helps us to understand, among others, why patients with different brain lesions can have similar language impairments. Furthermore, interesting aspects arise from studying language functions in aging brains (and also in young, developing brains) and in cognitively impaired patients and neuromodulation effects on reorganization of brain networks subserving language. In this selective review, we discuss methods for coupling new knowledge regarding the functional reorganization of the brain with sophisticated techniques capable of activating the available supportive networks in order to provide improved neurorehabilitation strategies for people suffering from neurogenic communication disorders.
PMID: 31428210 [PubMed - in process]
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