New Sagittal Plane Reference Parameters for Foot Deformity Correction Planning: The Vitruvian Foot.

Solomin LN , Ukhanov KA , Kirienko AP , Herzenberg JE
The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Currently available methods for analysis and planning of post-traumatic or congenital deformity correction of the foot have some limitations. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish reference lines and angles (RLAs), and the resulting ratios, based on reproducible anatomic points on sagittal feet radiographs. The key starting point of our evaluation was the previously undescribed length and position of the talus joint line (TJL), from the border of the articular surface of the talus and the posterior process of talus. First, we calculated the relationships between the TJL and the axes of the foot, particularly the anatomic and mechanical lateral talometatarsal angle axes of the first metatarsal. Then, we assessed the relationships with the calcaneus, particularly the lateral heel angle. Finally, we calculated the parameters (angles and coefficients k) derived from the TJL and the foot-bearing points (foot quadrilateral). A total of 64 normal radiographs from 55 patients were analyzed. The values that resulted are as follows: anatomic lateral talometatarsal angle = 28.5° ± 4.5°, mechanical lateral talometatarsal angle = 23.6° ± 3.2°, lateral heel angle = 15.2° ± 3.4°, foot quadrilateral: abc = 144.6° ± 9.4°, bcd = 31.3° ± 2.6°, cda = 79.2° ± 9.8°, dab = 105.0° ± 8.3°, k1 = 3.09 ± 0.4, k2 = 3.77 ± 0.78, and k3 = 1.56 ± 0.24. Sagittal plane reference lines and angles are proposed, providing quantitative values for reference. These parameters have the potential to be easily implemented in foot deformity analysis and correction planning.

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