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Antibodies to Cryptic Epitopes in Distant Homologues Underpin a Mechanism of Heterologous Immunity between PvDBP and VAR2CSA.

著者 Mitran CJ , Mena A , Gnidehou S , Banman S , Arango E , Lima BAS , Lugo H , Ganesan A , Salanti A , Mbonye AK , Ntumngia F , Barakat K , Adams JH , Kano FS , Carvalho LH , Maestre AE , Good MF , Yanow SK
MBio.2019 Oct 08 ; 10(5):.
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Many pathogens evolve extensive genetic variation in virulence proteins as a strategy to evade host immunity. This poses a significant challenge for the host to develop broadly neutralizing antibodies. In , we show that a mechanism to circumvent this challenge is to elicit antibodies to cryptic epitopes that are not under immune pressure. We previously discovered that antibodies to the invasion protein, PvDBP, cross-react with VAR2CSA, a distantly related virulence factor that mediates placental malaria. Here, we describe the molecular mechanism underlying this cross-species immunity. We identified an epitope in subdomain 1 (SD1) within the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of PvDBP that gives rise to cross-reactive antibodies to VAR2CSA and show that human antibodies affinity purified against a synthetic SD1 peptide block parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) The epitope in SD1 is subdominant and highly conserved in PvDBP, and in turn, SD1 antibodies target cryptic epitopes in VAR2CSA. The epitopes in VAR2CSA recognized by vivax-derived SD1 antibodies (of human and mouse origin) are distinct from those recognized by VAR2CSA immune serum. We mapped two peptides in the DBL5ε domain of VAR2CSA that are recognized by SD1 antibodies. Both peptides map to regions outside the immunodominant sites, and antibodies to these peptides are not elicited following immunization with VAR2CSA or natural infection with in pregnancy, consistent with the cryptic nature of these target epitopes. In this work, we describe a molecular mechanism of heterologous immunity between two distant species of Our results suggest a mechanism that subverts the classic parasite strategy of presenting highly polymorphic epitopes in surface antigens to evade immunity to that parasite. This alternative immune pathway can be exploited to protect pregnant women from falciparum placental malaria by designing vaccines to cryptic epitopes that elicit broadly inhibitory antibodies against variant parasite strains.
PMID: 31594821 [PubMed - in process]
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