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Moringa isothiocyanate (MIC-1) is a bioactive constituent found abundantly in Moringa oleifera which possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. However, epigenome and transcriptome effects of MIC-1 in kidney mesangial cells challenged with high glucose (HG), a pre-condition for diabetic nephropathy (DN) remain unknown. Herein, we examined the transcriptome gene expression and epigenome DNA methylation in mouse kidney mesangial cells (MES13) using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. After HG treatment, epigenome and transcriptome were significantly altered. More importantly, MIC-1 exposure reversed some of the changes caused by HG. Integrative analysis of RNA-Seq data identified 20 canonical pathways showing inverse correlations between HG and MIC-1. These pathways included GNRH signaling, P2Y purigenic receptor signaling pathway, calcium signaling, LPS/IL-1-mediated inhibition of RXR function, and oxidative ethanol degradation III. In terms of alteration of DNA methylation patterns, 173 differentially methylation regions (DMRs) between the HG group and low glucose (LG) group and 149 DMRs between the MIC-1 group and the HG group were found. Several HG related DMRs could be reversed by MIC-1 treatment. Integrative analysis of RNA-Seq and Methyl-Seq data yielded a subset of genes associated with HG and MIC-1, and the gene expression changes may be driven by promoter CpG status. These genes include Col4a2, Tceal3, Ret, and Agt. In summary, our study provides novel insights related to transcriptomic and epigenomic/CpG methylomic alterations in MES13 upon challenged by HG but importantly, MIC-1 treatment reverses some of the transcriptome and epigenome/CpG methylome. These results may provide potential molecular targets and therapeutic strategies for DN.
PMID: 31807911 [PubMed - in process]